The design of a vacuum system depends entirely on the application for the vacuum. All vacuum applications need reliable, effective designs.

The types of designs that you’ll come across most can be largely split into two categories: porous, and nonporous. Nonporous designs use sealed systems that allow for a minimal amount of air to pass through them. They are easier to design that porous systems, which are not sealed.


Nonporous systems can be used as the evacuation of a reservoir or vacuum tank. The design of a nonporous system has three main considerations: the volume that needs to be evacuated, the preferred level of vacuum in the tank, and the time it takes to evacuate the tank. When a nonporous system is first being designed, it’s prudent to calculate the total volume needed in the vacuum; connections and filters included.

Next, you would need to consider and set the required vacuum level, followed by the evacuation speed. The more free air a pump moves, the faster the evacuation time. Remember that larger the volume, and the deeper the vacuum level, the longer the system will take to evacuate.

Porous systems are not as easy to calculate and design. Applications that need a porous system rely on more intricate designs. These applications could be such actions as handling and lifting cardboard boxes.

In a porous system, air passes through objects at the vacuum point. The most important factor is the amount of vacuum flow a pump can manage, as it has to compensate for the air that is leaked. This type of design consumes much more energy.

To reduce the amount of energy used by a porous design, you must reduce the volume of the vacuum system. Bear in mind that the diameter of the vacuum’s hose matters, as a large hose will add unnecessary volume, and slow down the evacuation process. However, a hose that is too small will restrict the flow. The best way around this is to choose a hose that’s size matches the vacuum port of the pump.

When designing your vacuum solution, take into account that decentralised systems are much more efficient than centralised systems. The energy consumption of a decentralised system can be halved when compared to a centralised system.

If the pump fails in a centralised system, the entire operation will go down until repairs are made. This is because there is only one pump. Though this does make maintenance much easier. A decentralised system needs a synchronised operation, which can involve more maintenance.

Your vacuum system can be fitted with energy saving devices. This could prove effective in lowering the cost of use that comes with certain vacuum system types. Where possible, add filters to your system to keep it clean, too. Industrial environments are often full of all kinds of dust and particles, and you’ll spend much more money trying to keep your systems functioning and clean if you don’t have any filters between the pump and vacuum point of your vacuum solution’s design.